Initial resistance was limited overall, although the Americans repelled several dangerous counterattacks from the perimeters of their beaches. Within two days the Allies secured their beachheads and began to push inland. A drive on Messina followed.
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Just a few miles of water separated Messina from mainland Italy, so Messina was a vital base and a logical final objective for the Allied campaign. It fell on August During the Allied advance on Messina, Mussolini was overthrown by the Italian government. The Italians, weary of Fascist rule and the wars Mussolini had involved them in, negotiated an armistice with the Allies. The armistice was announced when the Allies entered mainland Italy through Salerno in September, and the Germans overran most of the country.
Italy declared war on Germany, and the Allied campaign became one for national liberation. It took the Allies another nine months to liberate Rome. Thousands of Americans lost their lives, along with thousands of their Allies. Armed forces where they have served overseas since For more information visit www.
Skip to main content. This was followed by a tedious campaign to clear a peninsula dominating the estuary, and finally, the amphibious assault on Walcheren Island in November. The campaign to clear the Scheldt Estuary along with Operation Pheasant was a decisive victory for the Allies, as it allowed a greatly improved delivery of supplies directly from Antwerp, which was far closer to the front than the Normandy beaches. In October the Americans decided that they could not just invest Aachen and let it fall in a slow siege, because it threatened the flanks of the U.
Ninth Army. As it was the first major German city to face capture, Hitler ordered that the city be held at all costs. In the resulting battle , the city was taken, at a cost of 5, casualties on both sides, with an additional 5, German prisoners. South of the Ardennes , American forces fought from September until mid-December to push the Germans out of Lorraine and from behind the Siegfried Line.
The crossing of the Moselle River and the capture of the fortress of Metz proved difficult for the American troops in the face of German reinforcements, supply shortages, and unfavorable weather. Seventh Army and French First Army fought a difficult campaign through the Vosges Mountains that was marked by dogged German resistance and slow advances. In November, however, the German front snapped under the pressure, resulting in sudden Allied advances that liberated Belfort , Mulhouse , and Strasbourg , and placed Allied forces along the Rhine River.
The Germans managed to hold a large bridgehead the Colmar Pocket , on the western bank of the Rhine and centered around the city of Colmar. On 16 November the Allies started a large scale autumn offensive called Operation Queen.
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The Allied operations were then succeeded by the German Ardennes offensive. Airborne troops would fly in from the United Kingdom and take bridges over the main rivers of the German-occupied Netherlands in three main cities; Eindhoven , Nijmegen , and Arnhem. XXX Corps was able to advance beyond six of the seven airborne-held bridges, but was unable to link up with the troops near the bridge over the Rhine at Arnhem.
The result was the near-destruction of the British 1st Airborne Division during the Battle of Arnhem , which sustained almost 8, casualties. The offensive ended with Arnhem remaining in German hands and the Allies holding an extended salient from the Belgian border to the area between Nijmegen and Arnhem. The Germans had been preparing a massive counter-attack in the West since the Allied breakout from Normandy. The plan called Wacht am Rhein "Watch on the Rhine" was to attack through the Ardennes and swing north to Antwerp, splitting the American and British armies.
The Germans launched a second, smaller offensive Nordwind into Alsace on 1 January Because the Allied lines had become severely stretched in response to the crisis in the Ardennes, holding and throwing back the Nordwind offensive was a costly affair that lasted almost four weeks. The culmination of Allied counter-attacks restored the front line to the area of the German border and collapsed the Colmar Pocket.
Veritable and Grenade were planned to start on 8 February , but Grenade was delayed by two weeks when the Germans flooded the Roer valley by destroying the gates of the Rur Dam upstream. Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt requested permission to withdraw east behind the Rhine, arguing that further resistance would only delay the inevitable, but was ordered by Hitler to fight where his forces stood. By the time the water had subsided and the US Ninth Army was able to cross the Roer on 23 February, other Allied forces were also close to the Rhine's west bank.
Von Rundstedt's divisions which had remained on the west bank, were cut to pieces in the ' 'battle of the Rhineland ' — , men were taken prisoner.
With a large number of men captured, the stubborn German resistance during the Allied campaign to reach the Rhine in February and March had been costly. Total losses reached an estimated , men. Once the Allies had crossed the Rhine, the British fanned out northeast towards Hamburg crossing the river Elbe and on towards Denmark and the Baltic.
British forces captured Bremen on 26 April after a week of combat.
Western Front (World War II)
The US Ninth Army, which had remained under British command since the battle of the Bulge, went south as the northern pincer of the Ruhr encirclement as well as pushing elements east. During the push east, the cities of Frankfurt am Main , Kassel , Magdeburg, Halle and Leipzig were strongly defended by ad hoc German garrisons made up of regular troops, Flak units, Volkssturm and armed Nazi Party auxiliaries. Generals Eisenhower and Bradley concluded that pushing beyond the Elbe made no sense since eastern Germany was destined in any case to be occupied by the Red Army.
On 7 May at his headquarters in Rheims , Eisenhower took the unconditional surrender of all German forces to the western Allies and the Soviet Union,  from the German Chief-of-Staff, General Alfred Jodl, who signed the first general instrument of surrender at hours.
Canada - Italy 1943-1945
On that same day Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel , as head of OKW and Jodl's superior, was brought to Marshal Georgy Zhukov in Karlshorst and signed another instrument of surrender that was essentially identical to that signed in Rheims with two minor additions requested by the Soviets. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the West European theatre. North and Western Europe. Main article: Phoney War. Main article: Operation Overlord. Main article: Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine. Main article: Operation Market Garden. Main article: Battle of the Bulge. Main article: Western Allied invasion of Germany.
The cease fire and pledging of allegiance to the Allies of the Vichy troops in French North Africa during Operation Torch convinced the Axis that Vichy could no longer be trusted to continue this policy, so they invaded and occupied the French rump state in November Collaborationist units, such as the Milice , continued to fight alongside German troops against French Resistance fighters until the liberation of France in Dutch casualties are placed at 2, killed or missing, 6, wounded, with no information provided on those captured.
Belgian casualties are placed at 7, killed or missing, 15, wounded, and , captured. French casualties amounted to , killed or missing, , wounded, and 1,, taken prisoner. British losses totalled to 11, killed or missing, 14, wounded only those who were evacuated have been counted , and 41, taken prisoner. Italian losses amounted to 1, killed or missing, 4, wounded, and no information is provided on any who were captured. Includes 77, French Jews in the Holocaust. Includes , Dutch Jews in the Holocaust. Includes 27, Belgian Jews in the Holocaust.
Invasion of Sicily
Mostly died in German bombing. Denmark: 6, Includes 2, Luxembourgish Jews. University Press of the Pacific, p. Total German soldiers who surrendered in the West, including 3,, who surrendered after the end of the war, is given as 7,, To this must be added the ,—, who died, giving a rough total of 8 million German soldiers having served on the Western Front in — Clarendon Press.
Quoting Alfred Jodl's "Strategic situation in spring " presentation. The total given for German forces in the west in May , prior to a slight upgrade of forces in the west in preparation for Operation Overlord , was 1,, personnel. Page American losses were ,, including , dead.
Allied invasion of Sicily - Wikipedia
The British, Canadians, French, and other allies in the west lost slightly over 60, dead". Army tank destroyers destroyed, including M10 tank destroyers , M18 Hellcat tank destroyers and M36 tank destroyers..
dice.burnsforce.com/1012-what-is.php US Army historian Charles B. In the related footnote he writes the following: "The only specific figures available are from OB WEST for the period 2 June — 10 April as follows: Dead, 80,; wounded, ,; missing, ,; total, , Of the total, 4, casualties were incurred prior to D-day. These figures are for the field army only, and do not include the Luftwaffe and Waffen-SS. Since the Germans seldom remained in control of the battlefield in a position to verify the status of those missing, a considerable percentage of the missing probably were killed.
Based on extrapolations from a statistical sample see German casualties in World War II , Overmans claims that losses on the Western Front amounted to , deaths fallen, deaths from other causes or missing in Table 53, p. This figure is broken down as follows p. The number of missing obviously includes soldiers who fell into captivity and died there, possibly months or years later.
The number of deaths in captivity calculated by Overmans is about ,, thereof , in Soviet captivity p. Overmans p. Nevertheless, Overmans claims pp. This would leave , deaths attributable to the Western Allied invasion of Germany between January and May Overall Overmans estimates deaths on the Eastern Fronts by all causes, including POW deaths as 4 million, and deaths on all other fronts including POW deaths and deaths attributable to bombing as 1.
He believes the men reported as missing on the Eastern Front died either from combat or in captivity.
Only includes those wounded who were not captured after, and only records wounded up to January 31, Likely to be drastically underestimated considering the corresponding figures for the Eastern Front on the same document. Population Changes in Europe Since , Geneva Retrieved March 4,